This treatise, titled "Gospel Grounds and Evidences of the Faith of God's Elect", was published in 1695, twelve years after Owen's death. "It is an inquiry...into the evidences on which the elect of God, in any process of self-scrutiny, may ascertain the reality of their own faith." Four evidences are discussed - a "fourfold development or operation" in the hearts of believers:
1. Acceptance of God's way of salvation for sinners 2. Acceptance of the will of God in regard to holiness and obedience 3. Guarding of the mind and exercise of worship 4. Genuine repentance and penitential feeling
Throughout there is keen observation of human nature and psychology, in this treatise which has been called "an admirable manual for self-examination."